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10 Things I Learned From Gray Cook

By Marc Perry / July 1, 2017

A few weeks ago I traveled up to Suffern, NY to attend a Level 1 Functional Movement Screen (FMS) certification. The creators of the FMS – Gray Cook and Lee Burton – were teaching the course.

I’ve gone to a lot of fitness workshops after changing careers from finance to fitness. Attending the FMS workshop may be the single most important action I’ve taken in my fitness career. Needless to say, I’m kicking myself for not doing it 5 years ago, but I probably wouldn’t have appreciated its significance back then.

The Functional Movement Screen is a systematic approach to assessing movement to help identify dysfunctions before they cause injuries. The FMS is used by strength coaches, personal trainers, and medical professionals around the world.

Gray Cook is one of the most influential minds in the fitness industry. As the fitness world better understands the role of movement as the foundation of proper exercise, Gray Cook’s influence will only grow. He is an accomplished physical therapist and strength coach who has worked with many top professional teams in a variety of sports and even elite military groups like the U.S. Navy Seals.

Here are 10 things I learned from Gray Cook during (and before) the FMS workshop that I want to share with you:

1) As a coach, or clinician, always use a checklist

If you are a coach, or are getting evaluated by one, make sure a checklist, or standard operating procedure is used.

Especially for very experienced coaches, it can be tempting to discard protocol and arrive at decisions based on incomplete data.

This is a big mistake.

A systematic approach to assessing and analyzing a problem is far more reliable than making judgments by selectively gathering data. Creating a checklist ensures that no stone is left unturned so that your judgment is not based on a hunch, but quantifiable and factual evidence.

The greatest value, in my opinion, of the Functional Movement Screen is that it standardizes movement analysis. It’s a systematic approach that requires the completion of a checklist.

2) Analyze patterns, not parts first

It’s easy to break the body down into parts such as specific muscles, or joints. Given the body has many moving parts, assessing the body can quickly become overwhelming.

Instead of breaking down the body into its component parts, it’s a better approach to analyze movement first. Our body moves as one unit where all the parts are connected. If the body moves efficiently without pain, we don’t have to worry about over-analyzing all the parts.

If one of the movements is dysfunctional, we can continue assessing other related movements before worrying about the component parts. The underlying issue may not be a problem of a part being tight, or weak, but an underlying neurological (i.e. motor control) issue.

3) First move well, then move often

Focusing on movement efficiency (or moving well) should be a chief aim of a properly constructed strength and conditioning program.

Movement efficiency requires a combination of mobility (i.e. flexibility and range of motion within the joints) and stability (i.e. motor control and postural musculature).

Sequentially, achieving optimal fitness and athleticism looks like this:

Mobility => Stability => Strength => Power

The more mobile you are, the more potential you have to move well. When mobility is able to be controlled, then you get functional movement. Once you have functional movement, move as often as possible and challenge your body with strength and then power exercises.

4) Don’t add strength to dysfunction

Of all the things Gray Cook has said in his career, this may be the most famous in fitness circles. If you have a dysfunctional movement pattern, adding weight to that movement pattern will make the dysfunction worse.

For example, if your knees cave in during a squat because your glutes are weak and your inner thighs are tight, those problems will only worsen if you add weight.

While it’s a tough pill to swallow and may hurt the ego, laying off the weights to focus on flexibility and stability may be the best course of action to correct movement dysfunction and prevent future injury.

5) Previous injury is the #1 predictor of future injury

Have you ever sprained your ankle? Or maybe pulled a hamstring?

The probability is high that while you were recovering from those injuries, the way your body moved changed…in a not-so-good way.

For example, if you sprain your left ankle, several “compensations” may occur:

The body is one interconnected unit, so any compensation can cause a variety of problems throughout the entire chain. That’s part of the reason why previous injuries are the #1 predictor of future injury.

6) The hips are the powerhouse of the body

While the bench press may be a very popular measure of strength, the greatest power the body can produce comes from the hips.

In particular, the hip hinge (bending of the hips) is the most powerful lift. It’s a reason why most people can deadlift more weight than they squat. Hinging of the hips is less of a forward bend and more of a sitting back motion where the hips push behind the heels while the back remains straight and the knees stay slightly bent.

In addition to the hinge, the hips can produce significant power rotationally. In sports, a powerful swing in baseball, or drive in golf is from rotational hip power.

It is not by coincidence that when doctors assess bone mineral density, measurements are taken from the hips and spine. Keeping your hips strong and powerful may lead to greater longevity.

7) Asymmetry is a big risk factor for injury

While excessive tightness, or weakness in the body is certainly not good, research shows that functional asymmetries between the right and left sides of the body are a much higher risk factor for injury.

If your right hip is tight, but your left hip is flexible, this asymmetry can lead to a cascade of problems throughout your entire body.

In a video I saw recently, Gray joked that he tells high school football players, “If you’re going to be tight, be tight on both sides. Then you’re just slow. If you’re tight on one side, your going to rip yourself in half.”

8) Infant development is key to understanding human movement

Most fitness professionals teach exercise from a standing position, but this is the opposite of how we learn to move as infants. The topic of infant development and its influence on exercise is easily worthy of a book.

As infants, we breathe, then grip, then roll, then crawl. Eventually, we sit, kneel, squat, then stand. So technically, we squat before we can stand.

This developmental sequence has important implications for how we should learn to exercise and how to correct dysfunctional movement patterns.

9) Your hamstrings are tight for a reason

If you have tight hamstrings, stretching them may have little effect on relieving tightness. If you stretch them today, they’ll be tight again tomorrow.

Why you may ask? Because something is causing the tightness.

So what is behind the tightness? What is driving it?

There are many possible reasons.

For example, if you have weak glutes (butt muscles), any activity from walking to squatting is going to require the hamstrings to work overtime. This will cause the hamstrings to shorten and remain flexed.

If you have a tight muscle, keep in mind it’s tight for a reason and simply stretching it may not fix the underlying cause.

10) If your knees hurt while you squat, it doesn’t mean squatting is generally bad for your knees

There is a lot of debate about squatting “below parallel”, which is when your hips drop below the plane of your knees. There are many doctors who believe this is bad for your knees. I’ve even done a video on how deep should you squat.

If you feel pain in your knees as you squat, you need to get your knees checked out ASAP. But that doesn’t mean squatting is bad, or squatting below parallel is bad. It’s not. It’s a very natural human movement and the knees experience more pressure at a 90 degree angle during the squat.

Gray Cook on Asymmetries

This video gives you a flavor of Gray Cook’s presentation style. I was basically mesmerized the entire weekend. I’m very grateful I was able to see him present in person:

I hope you gleaned some wisdom from these 10 topics as I did.

Which of the 10 is your favorite?


  • Barry says:

    Tip 4 all the way. This article is well-timed - I've been slowly building strength around the knees for the last couple of months with a focus on correct posture and form. I'll be paying a lot more attention to the little imbalances during my workouts from now on. Great article, Marc!

  • Vic Virzera says:

    Hi Marc;
    Once again you outdid yourself with the interesting topic, research and your presentation of same.The significance of Asymmetry in the approach to good health and working out is what I considered new and extremely interesting. I feel it might be a key to not only recovering from injuries but also preventing them.....and of course a contribution to maintaining good physical conditioning.
    Best regards to all,

    • Marc Perry, CSCS, CPT says:

      Thanks, Vic! Hope all is well.

  • Hank says:

    This is amazing information. Thank you for sharing this with us. The part about injuries is especially important at any age but more so for the beginning athlete be it male or female.

  • Jeanne Tham says:

    Marc, thank you so much for sharing your 1K FMS course. I fully agree with Nos. 5 & 9 and not new to no. 5) as I suffered left knee injury and compensated with the right. It takes more then 5 months to heal.

    I learn a lot thru your sharing. Thank you very much!!

  • Jason says:

    Great article! Thanks Marc, I hadn't heard of FMS.

    I've recently started taking my health more seriously after many years of sports injuries, car accidents, surgeries, being sedentary, working very long hours behind a computer screen... so #5 is my favourite.

    After experiencing discouraging knee and ankle pains from working out and running,
    I discovered integrative neurosomatic therapy (from a YouTube video with Randy Clark), and have had tremendous insights into my body's asymmetry by having a 'postural distortion' assessment done. A whole body approach. Checklist, checked!

    I now have a much better understanding of my body, and have specific exercises and stretches to help correct my posture, and to hopefully avoid pain and missed workouts.

  • Jared says:

    10) If your knees hurt while you squat, it doesn’t mean squatting is generally bad for your knee.

    I've had many problems with my knees that bike riding, swimming, hiking, walking none was helping and knees were slowly getting worse. The thing that really helped me was, at age 49 to 50 I started doing something I never had before, Gymnastic Diving. Somersaults, flying back flips, gainers, multi-axis rotations and doubles just to name a few, has made my knees feel years younger and now I don't need a cane to get around.

    • Marc Perry, CSCS, CPT says:

      Wow, that's an awesome success story. Thanks for sharing.

  • Farrukh says:

    Its a good article that you have delivered and i learn many things from this specially hip muscle.

  • Lucero says:

    Hola Marc,
    Thank you for the information, it's great! Its making me think about the cause of my lower back pain. I found that opening up my hips with some yoga exercises helped, but I don't do those every day. I guees I will have to pay more attention to other movements that I am doing that may be causing this unbalanced in my body. I don't want to injure my it.
    Thank you!


  • Bruce Dale says:

    Good overview of the FMS system and why it's important. I'm FMS Level 1 Cert. and we use it to screen employees at work (Police, Firefighters) about 50% of them score at risk for injury on FMS and these are people already in professions whose very job tasks put them at high risk for injury.

    Back / Hip and shoulder problems are epidemic among this population with constant employees on "light duty" status. We initiated FMS three years ago in hopes to combat and offset the number of on the job injuries. It's been an uphill battle as most public safety workouts encompass running or body building and little else.

    To my knowledge and internet search we are the only Public Safety Department in the USA resorting to FMS.

    • Marc Perry, CSCS, CPT says:

      Thanks for the comment and good for you for incorporating the FMS. Documenting and keeping track of injuries etc. as you implement the FMS is a really smart idea. Creating a well-rounded workout routine could go a long way to help these people. The notion of functional training is still amorphous to the public, but hopefully we can do our part to help educate others about sound movement-based training.

  • Ryan says:

    I agree, the Perform Better summits and seminars are fantastic. I definitely plan on attending more in the future.